Geography of Andhra Pradesh
Pradesh is India's fifth largest state (in terms of area) spreading over an area of 2,76,754 sq. kms. It is located between 12° 41' and 22° East longitude and 77° and 84° 40' North latitude. It shares common boundaries with Madhya Pradesh and Orissa to the north, the Bay of Bengal to the east, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka to the south and Maharashtra to the west. The state also forms a major link between the north and south of India.
For administrative purpose the state has been divided into 23 districts.
On the basis of geographical position, Andhra Pradesh can be divided into three distinct regions viz. Kosta (Coastal Andhra), Telangana and Rayalaseema.
Andhra Pradesh lies between 12o41' and 22o longitude and 77o and 84o40' latitude. It is bounded by Madhya Pradesh and Orissa in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the east, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka in the south and Maharashtra in the west.Andhra Pradesh is the fifth largest state in India and it forms the major link between the north and the south of India. It is the biggest and most populous state in the south of India.
There are three main regions in Andhra Pradesh - (1) Northern Circars or coastal Andhra comprising Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Ongole and Nellore districts; (2) Rayalaseema or Ceded districts comprising Kurnool, Cuddapah, Chittoor and Anantapur districts; and (3) Telangana comprising Khammam, Nalgonda, Warangal, Karimnagar, Medak, Nizamabad, Aadilabad, Mahbubnagar and Hyderabad districts. The Circars or Coastal districts are well developed and enjoy a greater degree of affluence than the other two regions; Rayalaseema is close to the coastal districts and here rainfall is less than in the coastal districts and drought conditions prevail sometimes, and the Telangana region is of the former princely state of Nizam's Hyderabad, which is close to Maharashtra's Marathwada region and some parts of Karnataka.
The state is dotted with hill ranges from the north to the south, running erratically down the middle of the country dividing it into western and eastern or coastal Andhra. These hills form integral geographical entities of Andhra life and history. In the north, there are Simhachalam and Annavaram hills, in the middle country there are the Srisailam hill ranges and in the south are the Tirumalai-Tirupati hills.
The state has two great rivers, Godavari and Krishna which spring from the Western Ghats in Maharashtra and flow eastward and joins the Bay of Bengal. The Godavari enters the state of Andhra Pradesh direct from Maharashtra, but the Krishna first goes to Karnataka where it flows for a considerable distance before entering Andhra Pradesh. Besides these two big rivers, there are the Tungabhadra, the Pennar and many other small rivers and rivulets.
Pennar originates in the Karnataka plateau. Like all the peninsular rivers and even those which arise in central India, like the Narmada, Sone and Chambal, all these are rain fed rivers as there is no snow below the Himalayas. Andhra Pradesh has considerable topographical variations with dense forest in the north east, flat paddy lands in the coastal plains, several noteworthy beaches along the Bay of Bengal and the stark boulder-strewn region around Hyderabad.