Climate of Assam
The climate of Assam is characterised by its extreme humidity. Its most distinguishing feature is the copious rainfall between March and May at a time when precipitation in upper India is at its minimum. Climatically the year may be divided into the cold season and the rainy. The cold weather lasts from October to February and the rest of the year is rainy. The southwest monsoon begin from middle of June. The neighbourhood of Cherapunji and Mawsynram are known to receive the highest rainfall in the world. It is concentrated in four months, June to September.
The specialty of Assam Climate lies in its highest levels of humidity. Since the state of Assam is known to have maximum amount of rainfall, hence the temperatures never go beyond the standard 35 degrees to 38 degrees.
On the one hand, the hilly regions of Assam experience a suitable sub-alpine climatic condition, on the other hand, the plain lands of the state go through excessive humid weather.
Primarily, the climate of Assam is categorized under two prime heads – rainy season and winter months. While the rainy season starts from June, the winter months begins with the onset of October. The minimum temperature which is found in the coldest of months in Assam ranges from six to eight degree Celsius.
The occurrence of rains begins with the month of June in the land of Assam. More often than not, the intensity of rainfall crosses such an extent that invariably leads to natural catastrophes like floods. Various districts of Assam, both in remote and prominent areas, experience large-scale damage of agricultural crops, loss of livestock and much other allied destruction.
Earthquake is one major damage syndrome which exists in the state of Assam from a very long period. The massive earthquake of 1869 in the Barak region of Assam was one of the major geographical devastation. However, at present Assam is not under the grip of such damaging earthquakes.
The agro-climactic conditions of Assam have made it possible to make agriculture as one of the significant sources of income generation. The Brahmaputra River has acted as the prime catalyst in transforming the lands of Assam into fertile zones where various cash crops are grown today. All the lands of Assam are characterized by alluvial qualities.